ICM Blog Series
Over the past few years, SAP Investigative Case Management (ICM) has become a prominent solution in multiple Australian Industries. Law Enforcement, Border Protection, Correctional Services, Homeland Security, First Responders & Public Safety services have been implementing ICM into their online programs. ICM is an SAP solution designed for organisations to conduct various types of investigations and case management processes. It has become a leading solution in these industries due to its powerful case management capabilities and its recent migration to S/4HANA 1909 release. This blog is an introduction to our series of ICM blogs with each entry being written from a different DalRae Solution’s SAP consultant expressing their point of view into ICM. This entry is an overview of what DalRae Solutions will be discussing in our series, looking at POLE model, the capability of ICM, the extensibility of ICM, ICM’s user experience and how we implemented it into the NZ Police Firearm Reform.
Written By Tim Hobbs
Tim is a technologist with a business mindset who is experienced in a broad range of systems delivering organisational capability. He has a proven track record in empowering and managing teams in operational and technical capacities across different operations. Tim’s main focus is to develop relationships with a broad range of stakeholders and engaging teams to successfully deliver project and program initiatives.
The Pole Model framework gathers data in a logical sense that ensures all information is readily available when responding to incidents or cases. This is one of the core reasons why ICM is extremely flexible; it is simple in concept, but it supports some of the most complex case management processes. Once the data is stored, you can be proactive, interrogate the data and identify patterns or links that may represent a concern. It leverages five core capabilities that relate back to the case.
People represent the individuals that have a relationship to the case. The person may be an individual who has witnessed the event, or someone more directly involved. In ICM, you can build physical profiles of people gaining an ability to create records ranging from people with little to no information, through to a very detailed data set relating to an individual. There is also the ability to upload photos whilst also categorising their profile within the ICM solution.
Moreover, the ICM solution allows you to input objects that are related to the case. An object can represent virtually anything irrespective of whether it is physical (e.g. a vehicle to DNA to company assets) or virtual in nature representing digital assets (e.g. emails and electronic documents). Features of the object can be included in the database, including adding multiple assignments of images and their metadata with the option to categorize the objects in a hierarchy. With SAP’s extensibility framework, you can easily record a variety of contextual attributes against the object based on the selected categorisation.
A fundamental aspect of ICM is the capture of locations which represent where an event has occurred, a significant location related to the case or as an additional element of data relating to the individuals involved in the incident or case. Locations are geographical places by address or geo-coordinates, although the case’s exact address and geo-coordinates may still be unknown when the location is created. ICM offers you the ability to store multiple aspects about the location:
- Other Names that a location is known as – integrated into the search
- Multiple assignment of images
- Metadata for images
- Map integration
- Option to categorise in a hierarchy
- Geo-location (Geocoordinates)
Events are represented by the incident object and allows the user to capture details about something that has occurred and can be used as a container to group together various elements that help to describe the event that has occurred e.g. who was there, what objects were involved and where it happened. An event can be an injury of an officer, insubordination or a major event involving multiple injuries, etc.
The last component of the POLE model is Relationships. These are used to bring everything together within ICM and describe how one element of the POLE model is related to another element of the POLE model e.g. A person can have a relationship as the primary suspect to a witness, or an address can have a relationship as the location at which a significant event occurred. Relationships allow all elements of the POLE model to be related to one another and due to the elements of the POLE model being able to have a many-to-many relationship, users of ICM are able to expose patterns of how a location, person or object has been involved in a variety of events over a period of time.
Capability of ICM
POLE Model indicates how capable ICM can be for a multitude of diverse industries in Australia. You can implement the system as an intelligence system for police enforcement or in a financial system to capture the interactions a customer has with your organisation. An event can be an injury to an officer or can be an insurance claim:
Police Enforcement Industry
Event: Injury to an officer
Location: Corner of XYZ street
Person: Officer & Witnesses
Event: Insurance Claim
Location: Off the exit of XYZ Highway
Objects: 2 Vehicles
Person: Employee & person making claim
As you can see the POLE Model can be used for two completely different industries without difficulty, indicating the capability ICM has for industries due to the flexibility of its functionality.
Extensibility of the Solution
Furthermore, ICM’s flexibility can be further illustrated by its extensibility to incorporate other software solutions that enrich the user experience. The ability to extend the components of ICM to capture more explicit data sets or to add solution extensions without complicating the user experience is crucial moving forward in the SAP industry. With the implementation of ICM in SAP S/4HANA ICM users are able to take advantage of SAP’s core solution software and to leverage the rich cloud-based capability in the SAP Business Technology Platform.
If you look from a UX point of view, it can be overwhelming and complex from a broad standpoint as users may find UX very discouraging and difficult due to the complexity & flexibility of its capabilities. To address this, SAP has provided the ability to adjust the front-end and expose additional fields or remove fields so that the UI is targeted to being able to capture the most relevant information for the business scenario being executed. Furthermore, the sequence that data capture is performed can be altered to ensure it supports the business. Where there are complex use cases that an organisation wants to capture in ICM and expose the solution to a broad range of users, in these scenarios it may be advantageous to provide a custom front end that focuses on keeping the core components of the solution standard while providing the capability to deliver automation of key elements of the business process.
NZ Police Firearm Reform– Citizen incident firearm surrender
DalRae Solutions partnered with SAP to deliver NZ Police the Firearm Reform solution in three months; which would not have been possible without ICM. We delivered an end-to-end solution that:
- Enabled citizens to notify the police that they had firearms to hand-in
- Enabled citizens to manage their notifications
- Enabled police employees to perform the same tasks as a citizen
- Enabled police employees to record the handover of a firearm
- Pay citizens for the firearms that have been handed in
- Track firearms throughout its lifecycle until it is destroyed, and destroy firearms
A core reason we were able to complete these tasks in 3 months was because of the extensibility of ICM. We managed to face little to no adversity integrating Docusign & SAP Cloud Platform into the solution. ICM never forced us to over-complicate the solution as extensibility allowed us to use consistent patterns when developing solutions, leveraging the cloud platform capabilities. ICM’s flexibility is enriched and complex in a broad sense but without that flexibility, designing the NZ Police solutions would have taken longer than 3 months.
It will be interesting to see the roadmap of ICM as it becomes a more common solution amongst SAP Partners. Additionally, how SAP will continue to update ICM and how they will deal with it’s complexity from a broad point of view.
For more info on ICM check out: https://help.sap.com/saphelp_crm70/helpdata/en/50/f19030ad564b00982ab3f5ef35d76b/frameset.htm
ICM Overview – Entry 2
Created On June 29th, 2021
For public safety and security agencies, investigative demands and operational complexity are constantly increasing. They need to manage complex investigative processes and meet the rising public expectations to ensure the best investigative outcomes. SAP Investigative case management for public sector is a powerful solution that support processes for Law Enforcement, Border Security, Intelligence, Justice, First Responders, Public Safety or any other public or private organization that manages investigative and security processes. The software empowers these authorities to see the complete investigative picture anytime, anyplace and real time. SAP Investigative case management allows to rapidly collect and analyze information and evidence, effectively deploy resources and consistently manage assets in a structured and transparent way.
SAP Investigative Case Management (ICM) for SAP S/4HANA is an on-premise only solution and is released to the in S/4HANA release 1909 FPS00. In this blog we will discuss about the “PEOPLE” component in the Pole Model Framework in detail.
Written By Tanveer Kaur
In our last blog, we briefly discussed what is POLE model framework and how it enables ICM to be extremely flexible even for complex use cases. Data in ICM is distributed in a way to make the most logical sense which helps in quickly reviewing and understanding the case and related information. For the Master Data, ICM provides a configurable entity model in which you can enter detailed data for the entities People, Objects, Locations, and Events. You can create associations between the respective entity data using Relationships and rate the reliability of the linked data using a Reliability Matrix.
People also technically known as PERSONS AND ORGANIZATIONS are those parties that are directly or indirectly linked to the case. They are the focus of the policing activities and investigative cases and essentially build a very important aspect in case management. In a typical scenario they can generally be suspects, victims, witnesses, gangs, or criminal organizations, and professionals working on their behalf, such as lawyers and doctors. Even though persons and organizations are the focus of investigative cases, there is a much larger set of parties involved in investigative case management.
Persons and Organizations do not include those parties because they can be working in a professional capacity for the law enforcement agency; hence, are not categorized the same. Persons and organizations in investigative case management are based on standard business partner functionality in S/4HANA.
Certain functions are therefore directly reused, and others have been modified for ICM purposes. An ICM specific role ‘CRMICM’ is used to distinguish ICM person/org from any other business partners in the system.vIn the system all the parties are typically categorized into: ICM persons, ICM organizations, Individual accounts, Employees, Corporate accounts.
The tables below, elaborate these parties and their representation in the system:
|Criminals, suspects, witnesses, victims||Any individual identified as being of interest to an investigation or incident.||ICM persons|
|Gangs, criminal organizations, victims||A formal or informal group of individuals with a common interest, constituting the focus of a law enforcement agency.||ICM organizations|
|Lawyers, doctors, psychologists, surveyors||Those working on behalf of suspects, victims, witnesses.||ICM persons|
|Police officers, inspectors, crime scene investigators||Internal professionals working for the law enforcement agency.||Individual accounts|
|Employees of police organization||Members of the law enforcement agency.||
If an internal employee who already has an employee record in the system becomes relevant to a case, for example, as suspect or witness, a new business partner record, that is an ICM person, has to be created.
|State attorneys or partner police officers||External professionals working together with the law enforcement agency.||Individual accounts|
|Acting police organization, partner police organization, or the state attorney’s office||Internal or external professional organizations.||
Corporate accounts and organizational model for internal police organisation structure.
Relationships cannot be created to law enforcement organizational units.
Recording Identification of People
In ICM we can record various information about the parties who are subject to police incident or criminal investigation in order to register, identify and validate them by building physical profiles. These records can have detailed information in different forms of identification, such as payment cards and identification credentials, different names under which they are known, and physical descriptions and profiles. ICM is provisioned in a manner to create these records with little to no information or large dataset of information making it a very flexible solution. Broadly, standard functions to record data for individuals and organizations and maintaining an overview of activities in which they are involved includes:
- Description of Person: Physical traits about a person’s appearance, such as hair, skin, and eye color, height and build, and voice. In each case, you can record the observation date and status, and enter information about the level of reliability of this information.
- Other Names: The party in focus may have multiple identities and may be operating under different names. These can be nicknames, false names, aliases, and so on.
- Addresses: Multiple addresses associated to the parties (e.g., Residential, Postal etc.)
- Methods of making contact: Contact details (e.g., email, phone number etc.)
- Images and supporting documentation: You can assign different types of documents to identify and validate parties involved in your investigations. You can also store photos and pictures using a specific folder for images in the Attachments assignment block. All photos are displayed in the Images assignment block in the form of an overview. Each photo can be enlarged by clicking on it. For individuals, the first photo in the folder is displayed on the overview page in the details section.
- Parties Involved: Relationships to other individuals, organizations, friends, family, membership, and so on.
- Objects and Locations: Relationships to objects (for example, “owner”) and locations (for example, “Went to school at”, “Seen at”)
- Leads, Incidents, Operations, Cases: Relationships to leads, incidents, operations, and cases, for example, as suspect, witness, reported, interrogated, and so on.
- Identification Credentials: Identity cards used by a person.
- Bank Accounts and Payment Cards
- Interaction History & Planned Activities: All past and planned activities involving the person or organization
- Change History: Changes made to records when and by whom
You use profiles to create sets of information based on different types of classification. This is typically information about an individual’s education, psychology, behavioral traits, and background. When creating a profile, you select the information you require for your purposes from the different types of classification available.
Investigative cases can involve a large number of parties who might be unknown or only partially known at the outset, therefore causing a large number of records to be created with a minimum amount of information. When you later discover that various identities available in the form of different records actually all describe one individual or organization you can use data cleansing to compare and merge the relevant records.
In one case a person P1 is unknown and just has a rough description, profile, and a number of relationships. However, another person P2, who has been identified, is assigned to another case. After further investigation on the first case, a detective discovers that P1 is identical to P2. The information recorded for P1 and P2 belong to the same person and should therefore be merged. This means retaining P2’s first name, last name, and address, and adding the description, profile, and relationships from P1.
Anonymizing Persons, Expunging and Archiving Records
In ICM use cases, records with data associated to the parties involved might be anonymized, expunged, or archived after certain dates in order to abide by the legal rules and regulations. In doing so ICM provides flexibility to anonymize one or more fields for a person or persons.
You can refine and extend this functionality using the Business Add-In (BAdI) CRM_ICM_BP_ANONIMIZE.
There can be scenarios where relationships have an expunge date, ICM lets you schedule this functionality with the execution of the report RCRM_ICM_REL_EXPUNGE at regular intervals. E.g., an individual is removed from one specific case, but remains in all others, in this situation the report checks if the expunge date for the relationship has been reached and will set the relationship to expunged.
A record can only be archived when the expunge date of all its relationships to other entities has been reached. Once a record has been archived the deleted relationships are no longer visible and the record no longer appears in the operational system.
Firearm Reform – ICM implementation (Persons and Organization)
In the recent Firearm Reform project, the customer enabled citizens to create notifications that include their personal details and details of any firearm/accessories they wish to submit or on behalf of another citizen. Officers could also create notifications on behalf of citizens in the system.
For this blog, we will stick to only Persons and Organization implementation. In this solution, citizens were the ICM persons, and the Officers/Employees were the Individual accounts. For both, the system creates a unique ID and assigns it to the individual, this ID is labeled: Business Partner. This unique ID can be classified as a Person or Organisation and can be assigned different roles to it. The different roles will allow each type of person/individual access to certain parts of the application.
The application used to retrieve this data was divided into 3 sections, namely, Owner/Citizen Information, Firearm Details & Further Information.
- Owner Information (Person’s Details)
This section contains personal details that the claimant needs to fill in. They include First, Middle, and Last Names, Date of Birth, Email, Primary and Alternative Phone numbers, and Address (House/Street/Suburb). When a person P1 submitted on behalf of another citizen P2 a relationship between the two of them is added to the notification. In addition, P1 can create its own notification and generates a unique Business Partner, this way it creates a relationship between the Parties Involved.
- Firearm Details (Relationships to objects)
This section allows the user to add any Firearms and/or Accessories that they wish to hand over.
- Further Information
This section contained questions that retrieved information for Bank Accounts, Firearms Licenses.
ICM Overview – Entry 3
In this blog we will focus on Objects, a master data category that is vital for the SAP-ICM POLE model.
[Fig: Object in relation to ICM data model]
Written By Cezary Cichocki
Senior Business Analyst
Cezary is one of our senior Business Analysts, he has experience in supporting businesses the transition from SAP ECC to S/4 HANA on Prem. or Cloud. Improving the UX of SAP Fiori applications by employing APIs, RPA technologies, AI & Machine Learning.
Written By Nitesh Chawla
Nitesh is one of our most experienced SAP Consultants. Having over 16 years of global experience in Solution Architecture, Customer Experience, Enterprise Information management, IT Delivery, and digital transformations. Nitesh prides himself in identifying and solving complex business problems across a wide range of industry verticals in both public and private sector.
Object is a globally unique tangible or intangible object that an agency finds relevant for the investigation.
Objects are not like materials. They can be uniquely identified and differentiated from others of the same category by at least one attribute. For vehicles this could be VIN / registration.
They are stored and protected as part of the investigation and often become evidence or support evidence during an investigation. Due to this fact the objects data and related functionality play a pivotal role in the SAP ICM Solution. SAP provides standard out of the box Fiori apps called “Manage Objects” to effectively mange the lifecycle of an Object as well as giving a 360-degree view to the Investigator. We will visit the Manage Object in the subsequent section of the blog in a bit more detail, however the 360-degree view around the Object empowers the Investigator in the following way:
- View all the relationships of this object across various transactions including Incidents, Leads and Cases.
- View all the relationships of this object with other POLE entities including People, Organizations and Locations.
- View the reliability of this object across various transaction including Incidents Leads and Cases.
- Provide a detailed view of the Object including pictures and Notes.
- Categorize and Classify the Object effectively for better maintain and search.
Objects consist of data with control function, e.g.:
- Categories – Create Categories and Assign them to the ICM object
- Text Determination
- Partner Determination
and of data with descriptive function, e.g.:
- Alternative ID
- Name, notes
- Extended object type specific attributes. Refer to the ICM Object App Extensibility guide
[Fig: Object and attribute types example]
In the table below there are some object examples that may be relevant to investigations:
|Tangible objects||Intangible objects|
|Vehicle with known or unknown licence plates, colour, model||Social media profiles|
|Firearms of certain characteristics||Cloud storage accounts|
|Tools or other evidence found on the crime scene|
|Chemicals, drugs, plants, equipment|
Objects can be searched in the system by leveraging the HANA Enterprise Search which provides unified, comprehensive, and secure real-time access to enterprise data across business objects. Enterprise Search includes the following capabilities:
Provides unified, comprehensive, and secure real-time access to enterprise data across ICM objects and other related apps:
(a) You can enter your search requests (such as a full or partial reference ID)
(b) You receive the search results through a single browser-based user interface
(c) From the search results you can launch to any related application – such as SAP Fiori apps or classic UI – giving you direct access to associated applications and actions, and saves the user from having to return to the launchpad home page to use the result in an app.
Search results return both structured and unstructured data
(a) Structured data – e.g., Cases, Incidents, Leads
(b) Unstructured data – Attachments related to Objects, Links etc.
[Fig: ICM backend screen with search screen]
Objects can be related to each other or other elements of the POLE model. Relationships can be viewed and edited in the respective sections, e.g., Locations, Staffs and Units. Existing relations can be easily navigated using the flexible layout offered by the Fiori Apps. Below are few examples of how objects can be related to other entities such as Location and Staff and Units.
Common types of relationships would be to:
- Locations, e.g., where the vehicle is registered, where it was found.
- Cases, incidents, events, e.g., what happened, was the same object involved in more incidents.
- Parties involved, e.g., who is the owner, who was driving when the incident happened.
- Staff and units: who leads the investigation.
This is a simplified graphical representation of the example above.
Full list of components that can relate to an object is below.
|Staffs & Units|
Activities are activities or system transactions that happen with relation to the investigation.
They may be recorded manually or automatically, e.g.,
- Towing away the vehicle to a police parking,
- Sending PDF notification to registered owner.
ICM is extremely flexible and capable of consuming and processing lots of structured and unstructured data. There are more than thirty standard Fiori apps available that are out of the box and ready to use offering comprehensive capabilities for an end-user.
Further, the solution offers the platform to build any custom app on the ICM Data model to support the business users and process owners. This can include dashboards, overview pages, and non-SAP-based front end for instances where ICM information needs to be displayed in other customer applications.
It offers capabilities to enable inexperienced users to work mobile, access and update the system directly from where the incident happened. Work offline. Use mobile device capabilities to add photos, videos, voice recordings, location tags and other relevant details.
To extend the standard apps, the developer must understand the application type that needs the extension. When the application is FIORI based including Locations, Objects, then The Fiori Extension Guidelines should be followed. Both the above FIORI Apps come with the context that can be extended with customer-specific attributes.
In the case, where extensions are needed on the WEB Client UI applications including Activities, Leads, Persons, Organizations etc, the appropriate business contexts should be extended using the WEB Client UI Extension Guidelines.